Furthermore, they have found that c olleagues may be reluctant to come forward as witnesses, as they too may fear the consequences for themselves. They may be so relieved not to be the subject of the bully themselves that they collude with the bully as a way of avoiding attention ACAS , page not given. Olsen suggests that the reasons why a victim of bullying may not report it include lack of management support, lack of confidence in how it will be handled resulting in them being worse off, victimisation by the bully and others, fear of seeming weak, being accused of it being their own fault and being discriminated against for promotion.
Olsen also notes that bullies take certain actions to dissuade their victims from reporting them. These include charm, subtle or direct threats and pressuring others to allow or ignore certain behaviours Olsen , pp. ACAS offer a range of actions to develop a policy on bullying and harassment. These include: statement of commitment from senior management; acknowledgement that bullying and harassment are problems for the organisation; clear statement that bullying and harassment will not be tolerated; examples of unacceptable behaviour; statement that bullying and harassment may be treated as disciplinary offences; the steps the organisation takes to prevent bullying and harassment; responsibilities of supervisors and managers; confidentiality for any complainant; reference to grievance procedures formal and informal , including timescales for action; investigation procedures, including timescales for action; reference to disciplinary procedures, including timescales for action counselling and support availability; training for managers; protection from victimisation; how the policy is to be implemented, reviewed and monitored ACAS page not given.
Olsen suggests that a workplace bullying programme is not so much about targeting and focusing upon bullies but about creating a culture that makes the actions of bullying and harassment very unwelcome Olsen , pp. Their website reports that they receive visits per day from various countries indicating that workplace bullying is an international phenomenon. Furthermore, they have found that this sector has shown the highest rate of increase in calls since UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line a, page not given.
They suggest that this is because the serial bully is attracted to this role for the opportunities to abuse power over vulnerable clientsas well as the opportunity to show publicly how caring they are UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line b, page not given. They go on to say that t his narcissistic urge is common to many serial bullies especially females who are oblivious to the discrepancy between how they like to be perceived as wonderful, kind, caring individuals and how they are perceived as aggressive, immature, inadequate and incompetent italics in original UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line b, page not given.
They feel that this is probably because females are a more willing to admit they are being bullied, and b more likely to be motivated to do something about it UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line a, page not given.
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However, they fail to qualify these statements or provide any evidence that these are the cases. Furthermore, it could be argued that those sectors from which the reports are made are likely to have a higher proportion of female workers.
Essay For Workplace Bullying
The UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line found that whilst a fifth of reported cases resulted in the complainant taking legal action, the majority were discouraged from doing so by a lack of support from their trades union or a refusal from their employer to allow them access to their trade union representative. Olsen suggests several reasons why employers are slow to deal with claims of bullying.
Several writers have commented on the effects of bullying. As previously mentioned, the most common effect is that of stress which provides a recourse for the victim to take legal action under health and safety legislation. The CIPD notes that employee stress within an organisation can damage morale and lead to higher labour turnover, reduced productivity, lower efficiency and divided teams CIPD a, page not given and for an individual can lead to illness, absenteeism, less commitment, poor performance and resignation CIPD a, page not given.
Olsen and the UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line both highlight the more extreme possibilities of suicide and retribution with the National Workplace Bullying Advice Line reporting cases of these occurring being logged on their website.
To examine the extent of the employers responsibility for stopping bullying, it is necessary to examine the causes of bullying. The situational bully may respond to being placed under pressure, experiencing personal problems, being threatened by others or having their own self esteem threatened by performing an isolated act of bullying.
Olsen sees this as most common form of bullying and the easiest to manage, saying that these individuals will respond well to correction and training. The UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line date not given suggests specific psychological disorders that can account for chronic bullying. Olsen says that although chronic bullies are less common that situational bullies, they may have greater impact upon people and organisations and be far more difficult, if not impossible, to change Olsen , pp.
Workplace Bullying - Essay Example
The not for profit organisations are becoming increasing important forms of labour utilisation. Drucker tells us that in the USA, the not for profit sector is the largest employer with over 80 million people working as volunteers Drucker Drucker also tells us that the non profit organization exists to bring about a change in individuals and in society rather than being driven by an end product or service motive Drucker , pp.
Drucker feels that this is due at least partly to an awareness by the not for profit sector that they require a robust management system as they lack the discipline of the bottom line Drucker , pp. However, he goes on to point out that there are few tools designed particularly for their style of operation ad that little of it pays any attention to the distinct characteristics of the non-profits or to their specific central needs Drucker , pp. Brower et al also noted differences in the way not for profit and for profit businesses operate and concentrated their research on the moral and ethical practices of company boards.
Their findings were that, as would probably be expected, the not for profit board members showed higher levels of principles and benevolence, but lower levels of reasoning than their for profit counterparts Brower et al These findings support Druckers view that there are significant differences in the cultures of not for profit and for profit organisations.
The majority of employees within a not for profit organisation are volunteers, a situation which, arguably, makes people management more difficult than it is in the for profit sector. This differentiation by name indicates his view as to how workers within not for profit organisations have been viewed and managed versus how they should be, going forward. Drucker points out that not only are these non-paid workers numbers increasing but that they are taking on more leadership roles and that existing models for their management and development should be adapted to allow them to be applied.
Whilst Drucker raises the specific issues of their training and development, of more relevance to this paper is the issue of how poor performance is managed. The quandary facing the not for profit sector is that a large proportion of their workforce is unpaid allowing a larger proportion of donations to be channelled to the cause for which they are working. Drucker gives a specific situation in relation to this question.
He suggests that many people who do volunteer work do so because they are lonely, but that sometimes these people for psychological or emotional reasons simply cannot work with other people; they are noisy, intrusive, abrasive, rude Drucker , pp. As has been demonstrated, the not for profit and for profit organisations demonstrate areas of similarity and difference. By examining the work of Drucker, it has been shown that there is emphasis on the not for profit sector to adopt the management practices of the for profit sector.
The following section will examine more specifically where these differences occur as an introduction to the possible differences in the way they approach the problem of bullying. Drucker summarises the general recruitment methods of the not for profit sector. He tells us that experienced volunteers are assigned to scan the newcomer Drucker , pp. He continues by saying that v olunteers may be assigned both a mentor and a supervisor with whom they work out their performance goalsthese advisors are two different people, as a rule, and both, ordinarily, volunteers themselves Drucker , pp.
This reliance on existing volunteers to recruit and train newcomers returns us to the earlier point regarding the pressures on the not for profit sector in ensuring they have a suitable number of people to be able to raise the finances required and that the majority of the monies raised are channelled to the cause itself. The question can be asked as to the amount of training the selectors receive and the criteria that they employ when making selection decisions. The for profit sector, especially in a large business such as that being examined in this paper, would have a dedicated team working on recruitment and employing advanced recruitment methods such as psychometric testing in their process.
Whilst they still have the pressures of achieving the bottom line, they are not subject to the scrutiny of outsiders as to how they reinvest their profit into the support areas. The workers in both types of organisation show marked differences as well. They also found that off these, two thirds are female. In terms of people management , the UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line warns us that responsible charities will have conditions of employment similar to those of any reasonable employer; however, many charities have few or no conditions UK National Workplace Bullying Advice Line b.
Workplace Bullying Essay examples - Words | Bartleby
Volunteers are not protected by employment legislation as paid employees are. The government sponsored website, DirectGov. They also address the unlikely possibility of volunteers being considered employees in the eyes of the law Direct Gov website, page not given. Their sample volunteer agreement covers equal opportunities but makes no reference to harassment or bullying. Volunteers do have the same rights as paid employees under the Data Protection Act.
Their turnover in was 3. They employ over 38, employees in their UK outlets. Cancer Research are the UKs leading cancer research charity, spending million a year on funding research into the disease and increasing public awareness. Their governing structure comprises a chief executive and executive board, a scientific executive board, trustees and members.
The trustees advise and support the board in implementing their strategies whilst the members act in a role similar to shareholders with their most important role being the election of trustees summarised from Cancer Research website. The two main sources of funds for Cancer Research are long term monthly donations from members of the public and the charity shops.
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Over 1 million people donate monthly to the charity raising over 5 million a month. The shops run by the company and selling both donated goods and new items raised The shops are staffed by around 15, voluntary workers, although this figure fluctuates on a constant basis and includes those who volunteer for short periods of time summarised from Cancer Research website. The primary research was designed to be able to quantify and qualify the attitudes and actions of the two companies around the subject of bullying. Face-to-face interviews with representatives from both the personnel and store management functions were used initially as it was thought that the nature of the subject could be seen as being controversial and therefore the expected response rate from a postal or electronic questionnaire would be too low to be able to achieve a worthwhile conclusion.
The writer was able to gain access to representatives from both organisations to conduct these interviews. The questionnaire was based to some degree on the recommendations made by ACAS and CIPD as to what steps employers should take to minimise and deal with incidents of bullying. Further questions were added and both qualitative and quantitative information was gathered.
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The respondents were briefed beforehand that the survey was a general review of bullying and harassment policies rather than looking at how they viewed their responsibilities as it was felt that this would affect their replies adversely. Following these interviews it was noted that both organisations had a policy of conducting regular employee attitude surveys and it was felt that reviewing these would be of benefit to the research.
However, on closer examination of the survey results, it was found that there was no direct information that was of relevance to this research and they therefore have not been included in this paper. The third area of research was analysing statistics from the two companies relating to why people left the business, grievances made and any legal action in terms of constructive dismissal or discrimination legislation. It was felt that this information may be able to support the answers received from the interviews in certain areas, but once analysed, proved to be disappointing.
The writer was given access to groups of employees within a working group context to be able to gain an insight into their views on bullying. They were briefed beforehand that they were not expected to talk about specific incidents that had either occurred to them or to their colleagues, but that the purpose was to gain their opinion on the subject. Several limitation are noted in the methodology. Firstly, as the subject being examined is one with legal and public perception connections, it would be expected that the respondents may give the right answers rather than describe the actual situation.